Grape

The grapevine is thought to originate in the Caucasus and western Asia, and it was probably already harvested in the Paleolithic. It is certain that there existed wild grapevines during the Tertiary Age. During the Neolithic period (6000 B. C.) the culture of the grapevine was initiated in Asia Minor and the Near East. They gradually selected the species with better production, until they obtained the current grapevines, of great fruit. The Egyptians knew the grapevine, but the Greeks and the Romans where the ones who developed its culture to a greater extent, spreading it all over the Roman Europe. The Spaniards introduced this crop in North America. As new lands were colonized, the grape was taken along, so that now it is cultivated on all continents and islands where the climate is favorable. At present, Europe is the main producing continent. It is followed by Asia. The areas with a smaller amount of grape cultivation are Africa and Oceania.

The grapevine belongs to the family of Vitaceous and the genus Vitis. It is a climbing plant. Vitis comprises about 60 to 80 species of vining plants, native to the north temperate zone, including varieties that may be eaten as table fruit, dried to produce raisins, or crushed to make grape juice or wine. The vine is a climbing shrub with irregular natural growth habit, generally determined by the type of farming, it is a deciduous species that goes dormant during the winter. Ordinarily, since the propagation is performed for the vegetative parts (cuttings grafted), the vine roots are only collated, affecting mainly the layer of soil between 30 and 80 cm from the surface. The trunk, also called stem or strain, is the support of the plant and can be more or less developed depending on the form of rearing. The strain is coated from a bark, the ritidoma. The leaves, with a long stalk, are large and palmate, with flap whole or divided into 3-5 lobes, green in color more or less intense depending on the variety, while the underside is lighter and can be covered with hair. The inflorescence is a cluster. Usually, on a shoot there are 1 to 3 bunches, after the last cluster in the same position, you distribute the tendrils or cirri which are bodies which have a development spiral, helical and allow the ‘ anchoring bud to a support of any nature. The cluster is made up of a central axis of said spine, on which are inserted lateral branching, said bunches, which carry the flowers. The flower is hermaphrodite in most of the vines (grape varieties). The fruit is a berry, also known as grape. The color varies, depending on the grape variety, from green to yellow, pink to red-violet color, from black or bluish black. The peel or skin is rich in coloring matter, tannic and aromatic. The pulp or mesocarp consists of large thin-walled cells, from which we extract the juice rich in sugars and organic acids. The endocarp is usually constituted by 4 seeds or seeds that were not formed in seedless grapes.

The annual cycle of the vine is divided into vegetative and reproductive. The first includes the steps of crying, shoot growth, the formation of the leaves, while the main reproductive growth stages are flowering, fruit set, fruit growth and ripening.

The exposures to the north are indicated in hot-arid regions, while those to the south are suitable in northern environments or at high altitudes where temperatures may be limiting. The vine is not very sensitive to cold winter in resting phase, in fact most of the cultivars in good vegetative condition is able to withstand temperatures of – 15 °C (5 °F) during the winter rest with a different degree of resistance associated with vine, depending on the area of ​​origin. The thermal needs are growing by budding (8-10 °C / 46.4-50 °F), at flowering (18-22 °C / 64.4-71.6 °F) and up to veraison (22-26 °C / 71.6-78.8 °F), while reducing at maturation (20-24 °C / 68-75.2 °F) and in harvest period (18-22 °C / 64.4-71.6 °F).  The land located under the slopes are considered better than those places in the plains since, particularly in central and northern, could lead to problems of waterlogging, spring frosts due to downward flow of cold air. Grapes are adapted to a wide range of soils, ranging from blow sands to clay loams, from shallow to very deep soils, from highly calcareous to noncalcareous soils, and from very low to high fertility. The soils most suitable for the cultivation of the vine are those medium-textured, well-drained, while the land less suitable are those compact wet clay cold, salty and “tired” or soils which have already hosted a vineyard, on which you make a replanting.

Fertilization has the aim to provide nutrients to the plants to meet their nutritional needs and reinstate the annual removals.

Nitrogen is usually the most limiting element for grapevine growth and yield. When nitrogen is low in the vineyard, there is reduced shoot growth that leads to reduced canopy fill, reduced light interception, and reduced photosynthetic efficiency and ultimately reduced yields in the current season. When there is excess nitrogen in the vineyard the vines exhibit excessive vegetative growth leading to mutual shading within the grapevine canopy reducing fruit quality in the current season and bud fruitfulness in the upcoming year.

The phosphorus is important in that it favors the energy transfer processes inside the cells and between the organs of the vine, also provides perfumes to wine. Inside the plant, it moves to areas of high metabolic activity. The lack of this element impairs the growth of the vine.

Potassium is involved in the regulation of water flows within the plant, osmotic agent is a very important part in the ion exchange and especially in perspiration, as it controls the opening of the stomata, it is a very mobile element within the plant and promotes the accumulation of sugars in the berries.

In a vineyard may occur micronutrient deficiencies such as iron and boron, in the first case there is a yellowing leaf chlorosis which consists of the veins that remain green, the plant has a poor fruiting of the grapes, the main damage caused by a Boron deficiency is millerandage.

The crop also benefits from the application of products with a biostimulant action to improve the availability of nutrients in the soil, to increase the yield from a quantitative and qualitative standpoint and to reduce the negative impact of climatic stresses. The application of biostimulants increases the environmental and economic sustainability of the production system.

Sample Fertilization Plan

Grape_stages_before_budding-web

Before budding

Improve soil fertility, high content in potassium
Improve soil fertility, high content in potassium
Grape_stages_leaves_unfolded-web

Leaves unfolded

Antistress action, improve yield and final quality of the berries. Repeat at flower separation.
Prevent/cure iron deficiency
Prevent/cure iron deficiency and biostimulant action
Nutritional action and increase the endogenous resistance to disease and abiotic stress
Nutritional action and increase the endogenous resistance to disease and abiotic stress. Repeat at flower separation.
Grape_stages_flowers_separating-web

Flower seperation

Prevent/cure iron deficiency
Prevent/cure iron deficiency and biostimulant action
Increase the fruit setting and final quality of berries
Increase the fruit setting and final quality of berries
Grape_stages_fruit_set-web

Fruit set

Increase the fruit setting and final quality of berries
Increase the fruit setting and final quality of berries
Nutritional action and increase the endogenous resistance to disease and abiotic stress
Nutritional action and increase the endogenous resistance to abiotic stress. Repeat at cluster closure & veraison.
Providing a balance of Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium
Nutritional action and increase the endogenous resistance to abiotic stress

Closter closure

Increase the fruit setting and final quality of berries
Increase the fruit setting and final quality of berries
Cure magnesium deficiency & prevent desiccation of the spine. Repeat at flower separation
Prevent physiological disorders, increase skin resistance
Prevent physiological disorders, increase skin resistance
Increase the sugar content. Repeat at veraison.
Grape_stages_véraison-web

Veraison

Antistress action, improve yield and final quality of the berries
Prevent physiological disorders, increase skin resistance
Prevent physiological disorders, increase skin resistance
Grape_stages_after_harvest-web

Post harvest

Improve reserve inside the plant

Request a fertilization plan

Some products may not be available in your region. Reach out to a sales rep to get a fertilization plan that fits your needs.

PRODUCT BENEFITS

Organic fertilization provides organic matter and plant essential nutrients to the soil. It is important to reduce the necessity of repeated application of synthetic fertilizers to maintain soil fertility. For this reason, it is important to use organic fertilizers in pre-sowing, capable of improving the physical, chemical, and biological fertility of the soil and sustain growth and development of tomato plants. PHENIX is the ideal solution for organic fertilization of grapevine during the dormancy period, before budding. PHENIX is the most complete among the organic fertilizers thanks to the high content of organic matter and presence of nutrients (completely organic nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium).

Nutrients in the soil are often unavailable for plants but specific bacteria are able to solubilize mineral elements and make them available for plant uptake. Besides, vegetal protein hydrolysates can modify the microbiome on plant tissues increasing the microbial biodiversity and especially plant growth promoting bacteria. GLYSS is a new generation plant biostimulant based on the combination of beneficial bacteria and vegetal protein hydrolysates including Plant Stimulating Peptides (PSP) enriched with Lateral Root Promoting Peptide (LRPP). GLYSS is suitable for seed treatment, but it can also be applied as foliar spray with herbicides. Glyss enhancing nutrient availability and providing useful bacteria increases the yield and quality, with positive impact also on soil biodiversity.

As a first line of defense, nutritional status of crops is directly involved in plant health. Some nutrients and organic compounds like vegetal peptides are able to increase endogenous resistance and tolerance against abiotic stresses, nowadays more and more frequent and aggravated by climate change. POSPHIT-ONE is a NPK fertilizer enriched with vegetal peptides ideal to feed the plant and trigger the natural endogenous resistance. SCUDO is a liquid fertilizer with copper and vegetal peptides able to prevent/cure copper deficiency helps plant to overcome rapidly the stress induced by nutritional imbalances and unfavorable environmental conditions. All growers, conventional and organic, have an interest in gaining back the yield potential lost due to abiotic stresses.  It’s proven that on the average, farmers can harvest only 50% of the yield potential. The yield gap can be caused by biotic and abiotic stresses with a stronger negative impact of abiotic stresses. TRAINER has been shown to consistently help plants better recover from stress events by increasing antioxidant supply, stimulating antioxidant biosynthesis, and activating antioxidant defense enzymes.
Potassium is a fundamental element for the quality of berries. In case of potassium deficiency, ripening is problematic, and the quality of the fruit is considerably reduced due to the reduced sugar content and poor color. Potassium deficiency also has harmful effects on the plant: damage from cold, less lignification of the shoots, reduction of photosynthesis (of which K is a promoter), less efficiency in water management. Potassium deficiency can result from a low content of K in the soil or from a poor absorption of potassium hindered by the presence of antagonist ions such as calcium and magnesium. In these cases, the application of MYR POTASSIUM or NUTRIMYR 4-4-10 is the ideal solution to bring it to the plant quickly and very effectively. MYR POTASSIUM and NUTRIMYR 4-4-10 nourish plants and, thanks to its vegetal peptides enhance the tolerance against abiotic stresses (heat, cold, drought, etc.). The high potassium content improves fruit ripeness and quality

Iron is one of the micronutrients which limits yield and nutritional quality of grapevine. In fact, iron is a critical element for the whole metabolism of plants, being crucial for metabolic processes such as respiration and photosynthesis as well as for biosynthesis of fundamental molecules like chlorophyll. Although Fe is one of the most abundant metals in the earth's crust, its availability to plant roots is very low. Grapevine typically develop symptoms of iron deficiency, interveinal chlorosis of apical leaves, when cultivated in calcareous and alkaline soils. Under these conditions grape yield and quality is depressed in the current year and fruit buds poorly develop for following year fruiting. The application of synthetic iron chelates, like EDDHA, does not represent a sustainable way to prevent or cure iron chlorosis. These compounds are characterized by a low degree of biodegradation that brings many side effects with risks for the environment and human health. KEYLAN Fe is an innovative product containing Iron biochelated to Vegetal peptides. KEYLAN Fe supply iron in a biochelated form to the plant in order to optimize their absorption and, at the same time to boost plant metabolism thanks to the peptide action.

Fruit cracking is a physiological disorder that occurs with rupturing of the berry skin. Berry Cracking is an important industry issue because its effect leads to significant commercial losses in the table and wine grape production. Calcium is one of the important micronutrients having vital role in maintaining fruit quality. Calcium also plays an important role in strengthening and stabilizing the cell wall and membrane structure. Foliar application of calcium on the fruit is important to make stronger cell wall and to reduce the calcium related physiological disorders. Spraying of calcium improve the quality of grapes and minimize the fruit cracking. KEYLAN Ca is an innovative product containing Calcium biochelated to Vegetal peptides. It effectively prevents fruit cracking, improves grape quality and shelf life.

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